GROUP- 1 ESSAY WRITING:
Agricultural Opportunities and Challenges in Bangaru Telangana:
Sustainable growth in Agriculture continues to be core agenda for Telangana. Agriculture sector is mainly rain fed and depends to a significant extent on the depleting ground water.
As nearly 55.49 percent of the State’s population is dependent on some form of farm activity for livelihoods, it is imperative to increase the farm incomes and ensuring sustainable growth in Telangana to reduce poverty.
Highest priority is accorded to the Agriculture Sector in the State with the objective of shifting the excess labour force from this sector to other non-farm rural sectors such as rural industry through skill development.
Ensuring food security and provision of gainful employment continues to be the essential premise of the socio economic development and employment guarantee schemes like MGNREGS and Rural livelihoods programmes.
The share of agriculture to state GSDP in 2014-15 is 9.3 percent at current prices. Agriculture and allied sectors are constituted by crop husbandry (agriculture, horticulture), livestock, forestry and ﬁsheries sectors. The share of crop husbandry sector in agriculture and allied sector GSDP is declining overtime.
The share of livestock sector is around one third of total agriculture and allied sectors of GSDP during 2014-15. The growth of this sector is stable as compared to that of crop sector during the last decade. However, there has been a slowdown in its growth during the last two years. The growth of livestock sector gains signiﬁcance in the light of the decline in the share of agriculture and allied activities share in GSDP.
• The total land area of the State is 114.84 lakh hectares, out of which the area under forest cover is 27.43 lakh hectares, constituting 23.89 percent of the geographic area.
• Nearly,43.20 percent area is under cultivation 49.61 lakh hectares),
• 8.36 percent is Current Fallow Lands (9.60 lakh hectares),
• 7.79 percent Land is put to non-agricultural uses (8.95 lakh hectares),5.36 percent is barren and uncultivable (6.15 lakh hectares) and
• 6.24 percent falls under other fallows (7.17 lakh hectares).
• The remaining 5.16 percent is under culturable waste, permanent pastures and other grazing lands, and land under miscellaneous tree crops and groves are not included in the net area sown (5.93 lakh hectares)
• As per the Agricultural Census, 2010-11, the number of holdings in the State amounted to 55.54 lakh
• The area held by these holding was 61.97 lakh hectares.
• The average size of the holdings in the State is 1.11 hectares, which is highly uneconomical to operate.
• In the State, 62.0 percent of the holdings are marginal (less than 1 hectare) and the percentage of small holdings (1 to 2 hectares) is 23.9 percent.
• Marginal and small holdings constitute about 85.9 percent of total agricultural holdings in the State, making agriculture a subsistence source of livelihood for the majority of the population.
• More than 60% holdings are marginal in Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Medak, Khammam and Warangal districts.
• Percentage of area held by semi medium and small holdings is higher than marginal holdings. Average size of land holding is highest (1.40 ha.) for Adilabad District and lowest (0.92 ha.) for Nizamabad District.
Rain fall Scenario
• The State of Telangana is semi-arid.
• The average annual rainfall in the state is about 906 mm, 80 percent of which is received from the south-west monsoon (June-September).
• The rainfall in the State is erratic and uncertain and distribution of the rain fall is uneven in various mandals, thus, making agriculture a proverbial gamble in monsoon.
• Of the rainfall received during the period from 2004-05 to 2013-14, the annual actual rainfall was lowest in 2004-05 with 614 mm.
• Highest in 2013-14 with 1212 mm as against normal rainfall of 906 mm in the state.
• The actual rainfall received during the South West Monsoons (June – September) period for 2013-14 was 852 mm as against the normal rainfall of 715 mm, recording an excess of 19 percent.
• Rainfall received during the North East monsoons (October- December) period for 2013-14 was 243 mm as against the normal rainfall of 129 mm, recording an excess of 88 percent.
• The trend of Rainfall over the past 10 years is depicted in the following graphs.
Rain fall during South West Monsoon 2004-05 to 2013-14
• The cropping intensity (the ratio of gross cropped area to net cropped area) is one of the indicators for assessing efficiency of agriculture sector.
• The cropping intensity for the year 2013-14 increased to 1.27 from 1.22 in 2012-13.
• The cropping intensity is highest in Nizamabad District (1.67) and lowest in Adilabad district (1.09)
Gross Area and Net Area Irrigated
• During 2013-14, the gross irrigated area in the State has increased to 31.64 lakh hectares from 25.57 lakh hectares in 2012-13, showing an increase of 23.74 percent.
• The net area irrigated in the state has also increased to 22.89 lakh hectares in 2013-14 as against 17.74 lakh hectares in 2012-13, showing an increase of 29.03 percent.
Gross and Net Area Irrigated 2007-08 to 2014-15 (K)
Source wise Gross Area Irrigated
• The ratio of net area irrigated to the net area sown during the year 2013-14 is 46.14 percent and for Kharif 2014-15, the same is 35.86%.
• The details of the ratios from 2008-09 to 2014-15 Kharif are shown below.
• Net area irrigated by wells was the highest in 2009-10 at 84.33 percent and fell to 74.83 percent in 2013-14, while area irrigated by canals has increased from 5.07 percent in 2012-13 to 12.67 percent in 2013-14.
• During the given period, on an average, 76 percent of net irrigated area was through wells, showing the heavy dependence on well irrigation.
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